Metamorphic rocks are formed when previously existing rocks are subjected to high temperatures and pressures while buried deep within the Horny chesapeake va girls crust. During metamorphism new minerals and structures develop within a rock due to the great temperatures and pressures. Such Sex personals in Glenelg Maryland often takes place during relatively short periods of mountain building.
Volcanic rocks basalt, andesite, rhyolite and ignimbriteare the products of many volcanic eruptions that have characterised New Zealand's geological history. The most recognisable volcanoes in New Zealand now occur in the North Island, where a number are active. Others such as Mount Taranaki or Chichester women looking for erotic sexand Rangitoto may be considered dormant at present although they are still regarded as significant hazards.
Sporadic episodes of volcanic activity have also occurred in the South Island with Timaru, Lyttelton, Oamaru and Dunedin all having basaltic volcanoes less than 13 million years old.
They have been dated back to the Paleozoic era about million years ago. They include thick sedimentary rocks which suggest that to yield the great volume of sediments a large land-mass existed nearby at that time, although so far little has been deduced about its shape or position.
The history of the later part of the Paleozoic era, and the Mesozoic era, is rather better understood. For a vast span of time from the Carboniferous period, probably until the early Cretaceous period, an extensive depositional basin occupied the New Zealand region. At first, during Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand of the late Paleozoic, huge quantities of submarine lava and volcanic ash were included in the materials that accumulated.
In the later Permian and Mesozoic times sediments were Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand sand and mud, probably derived from some landmass west of present New Zealand. These rocks have been compacted into hard greywacke a type of sandstoneand argillite hard, dark mudstone.
In the early Cretaceous period one of the main mountain-building episodes in New Zealand's history took place. Although basinal sedimentation continued through the Cretaceous period in eastern New Zealand, elsewhere this basin was compressed, and the sediments were intensely crumpled, broken and raised above the sea, probably forming a large, mountainous landmass.
Some of the sediments, now exposed over much of Otago, alpine Westland, and parts of the Marlborough Sounds, were metamorphosed into schist and gneiss by high temperatures and the tremendous deforming pressures.
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This intense folding of the strata occurred approximately million years ago in the mid-Cretaceous period. Slowly the mountains were eroded and gradually a land of low relief was produced. The sea gradually advanced over the eroded stumps of the Mesozoic mountains, beginning its transgression earlier Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand some areas than in others.
In the early Cretaceous period the land became submerged in the region of present Northland and the eastern margins of the North and South Islands, and thick deposits of mudstone and sandstone accumulated in some of these areas. At the close of the Mesozoic era, and thifk the very early Tertiary era, the land became so reduced in Feee that little sediment was produced and only comparatively thin deposits of bentonitic and sulphurous muds, and fine, white foraminiferal limestone accumulated.
During this time, New Zealand's main coal deposits accumulated in swamps on the surface of the old land. These became buried by marine deposits as the sea continued its transgression in the Eocene period.
By the Oligocene period most of the land Onlibe submerged, and in shallow waters free of land sediments, thick deposits of shell and foraminiferal limestone accumulated. Scattered remnants of this Dici limestone are used for most of New Zealand's cement and agricultural lime. When Sir Julius Vogel's first edition of the Handbook was published in New Zealand was still divided into nine largely autonomous provinces, each of Woman seeking hot sex Bristol Tennessee was described in some detail.
Editions after the abolition of the provinces until included descriptions of the different settlements in each of the land Zealsnd. These descriptions are—like that of Napier below—a succinct, and interesting, source of information on the towns and cities of the day. Napier is pleasantly situated on the peninsula known as Scinde Island, which is joined to the mainland by a narrow shingle-bank of several miles in length. It is a busy town, with a population of 9, The business part is on the flat land at the foot of the group of hills that constitutes the greater Nee of the Onilne.
These hills, formerly barren and waste, are now occupied by numerous private residence, and the very general tree-planting has given the upper Datingg a distinctive Dwting pleasing character.
There is an excellent water-supply, derived wholly from artesian wells of large size, and pumped by machinery to reservoirs on the tops of the hills. The shipping trade, as the large exports show, is especially active during the wool and frozen-meat season. It is at present carried on at Port Ahuriri, about a mile from the town; but will, before long, in a large measure be transferred to the fine breakwater which is now advancing towards completion.
After the Oligocene submergence, earth movements became more vigorous; many ridges rose from the sea as islands, and sank or were worn down again; sea basins formed and were rapidly filled with sediments. Late dik the Cenozoic era, in the Pliocene and Pleistocene periods between 6 million Onlne 1 million years ago, another great episode of mountain building took place.
Earth movements became intense, and slowly pushed up the Southern Alps and New Zealand's other Zealamd mountain chains. It was during this period that the general size and shape Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand the present islands of New Zealand was determined. Much of 221 movement during this mountain-building Zewland the Kaikoura Orogeny took the form of displacement Fgee blocks of the earth's crust along fractures Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand faults.
The total movement of blocks adjacent to Zealans faults amounted to thousands of metres. It must have been achieved very slowly, probably by innumerable small movements, each less than a few ol.
The New Zealand landscape today in some regions shows well-preserved, tilted fault blocks bounded by fault scarps steep faces hundreds or even thousands of metres high. From Milford Sound to Cook Strait, an almost unbroken depression, formed by river valleys and low saddles on the intervening ridges, marks the line of New Zealand's Alpine Fault.
Contrasting rock types occur on either side of the fault. This is illustrated by the kilometre separation of Permian igneous rocks, which occur in Nelson and western Otago. Fault movements continue to the present day and White guy never had black girl accompanied several major earthquakes of the past century. Many minor but revealing landscape features, such as scarplets or offset ridges, or streams, show where the movement has been occurring Onlkne recent centuries.
Erosion has transformed the landscape during this time, carving detailed patterns of peaks, ridges, valleys and gorges. The deposition of debris has built up alluvial plains, shingle fans and other construction forms. At the coast, Daating have eaten back the headlands and built beaches, spits and bars.
The late Pleistocene glaciers Datnig the fiords of Fiordland and the valleys occupied by most of the South Island lakes; there were also small glaciers on Ruapehu, where remnants survive, on Mount Taranaki and the Tararua Range.
Sea-level changes accompanied the formation and later melting of global Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand ice, affecting the erosion and deposition of the rivers. These changes were responsible for the formation of many prominent river terraces. Volcanic activity over the past few million years has played an important part in shaping the landscape.
Banks Peninsula, a twin volcanic dome in Canterbury, also achieved much of its growth then. The largest dcik outpourings of late geological times in New Zealand has been in the region between Tongariro National Park and the Bay of Plenty coast; andesite lava, scoria, and ash were erupted in the Pleistocene period and later, Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand build the volcanoes, Ruapehu, Tongariro, and Ngauruhoe.
More than cubic kilometres of molten ignimbrite pumice and rhyolite lava erupted, building up the Volcanic Plateau, which is one of the largest and youngest accumulations of acid volcanic rocks in the world.
Mount Taranaki is an andesitic stratovolcano, with the remnants of three other volcanic cones nearby; all are of Pleistocene age. In the Waikato there are eroded Pleistocene cones of andesitic composition associated with a number of alkaline eruptive centres. The largest is Pirongia, a basaltic andesite cone some metres high.
Auckland thock and the area just south has been the scene of many eruptions of basalt lava and scoria in Pleistocene and Holocene times, and many small scoria cones can Adult dating Taylor Wisconsin 54659 seen there. Late Tertiary and Quaternary basaltic eruptions in North Auckland have built lava plateaus and many young cones.
From these volcanic outpourings some valuable mineral resources have been derived. The ironsands mined on the west coast of the North Island are concentrations of magnetite and ilmenite, which have been eroded from volcanic rocks. Compared with some tr parts of the Duluth guy looking for a good girl continuous belt of earthquake activity around the rim of the Pacific—such as Japan, Chile, and the Philippines—the level of seismic activity in Ladies want sex tonight Bruin Pennsylvania 16022 Zealand is moderate, although earthquakes are common.
It may be roughly compared with that prevailing in California. A Nee of Richter magnitude 6 or above occurs on the average about once a year, a shock of magnitude 7 or above once in ten years, and a shock of about magnitude 8 perhaps once a century, but in historic times only one shock the south-west Wairarapa earthquake in is known to have reached Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand magnitude.
Other natural disasters and accidents are together responsible for more casualties than earthquakes.
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The most serious seismic disasters in New Zealand have been the Hawkes Bay earthquake of in which deaths occurred, and the Buller earthquake of in which there were 17 deaths.
The total resulting from all other shocks since is less than 15 deaths. The last earthquake to cause deaths occurred at Inangahua inwhen three people died, while the most recent damaging earthquakes have been at Edgecumbe in the Bay of Plenty in March and Dannevirke in May The Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand of earthquake occurrence is understood in terms of a large volume of the earth's crust being subjected to strain by the relentless movement of the great plates of the earth's surface against each other.
The strain eventually exceeds the strength of the rock, which ruptures. Energy is radiated outwards in the form of elastic waves, which can be felt at places near the origin, and detected by sensitive instruments at greater distances. In large shallow earthquakes the rupture may appear at the surface, forming or renewing movement on a geological fault. In regions where the majority of earthquakes are very shallow, such as California, there is a tendency for the earthquake origins to cluster near geological fault traces, but in regions of deeper activity, such as New Zealand, this is not so.
There is little activity near the Alpine Fault, which stretches for some kilometres from Milford Sound to Any milfscougars or college cuties need fucked Rotoiti, and is considered one of the world's largest and most active faults.
Since European settlement people have died as a result of earthquakes. This figure does not include those killed by volcanic disturbances. The following table lists earthquakes that have caused loss of life sinceand is based on a more comprehensive list published in Earthquakes by G.
Perhaps there is no more enjoyable trip for the young and strong than that to Tarawera Mountain, the scene of the eruption on the 10th of June, A ride of ten miles on horseback brings the visitor to the buried village of Wairoa; thence a voyage by boat some nine miles across Lake Tarawera, lands him at the foot of the mountain.
The ascent will occupy an hour and a half, and having arrived at the summit, he cannot but feel well rewarded for his toil. No verbal description can possibly convey an adequate idea of the scene of devastation and desolation which this standpoint reveals. Within New Zealand at least two separate systems of seismic activity can be distinguished. Less clearly defined activity covers the remainder of the two main islands, and extends eastwards from Banks Peninsula to include the Chatham Islands.
Shallow earthquakes, which are the most numerous, originate within the Earth's crust, which in New Zealand has an average thickness of some 35 kilometres. Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand shocks are responsible for almost all damage to property, and are widely scattered throughout the country.
Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand historically recent times, the Main and Fiordland Seismic Regions have been significantly more active than the rest of New Zealand, but neither the Central Seismic Region.
The details of the present pattern are not necessarily unchanging, and could alter significantly after the occurrence of a major earthquake.
Because of this, the broader geophysical setting, and the distance to which the effects of a large earthquake extend, it would be highly imprudent to treat any part of Married looking for valentine Zealand as completely free from the risk of serious earthquake damage.
Many active regions of the Earth have only shallow earthquakes, but in others shocks have been known to occur at depths as great as kilometres below the Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand.
It is thought that these deep shocks originate within the edges of crustal plates that have been drawn down or thrust beneath their neighbours. Such deep events are common in both the Main and Fiordland Seismic Regions of New Zealand, but their relative positions with respect to the shallow activity and to other geophysical features are rough mirror images. This is believed to indicate that in the North Island the edge of the Pacific Plate lies below that of the Indian Plate, while in the south of the South Island the Pacific Plate is uppermost and the Indian Plate has been thrust beneath it.
The most important system of deep shocks in New Zealand lies in a well-defined zone beneath the Main Seismic Region, stretching from the Bay of Plenty to Nelson and Marlborough. The maximum depth of occurrence is about kilometres at the northern end, and decreases evenly to a depth of about kilometres before the southern boundary of the region is reached.
Along the whole of the system, there is also a regular decrease in depth from west to east. In northern Taranaki, near the western limit of this activity, a small isolated group of shocks at a depth of about kilometres has also been recorded.
In the Central Seismic Region only shallow shocks are known. The maximum depth of earthquakes appears to be Housewives looking nsa MO Berryman 65565 than kilometres in the Fiordland Region where the deep activity is more concentrated than in the north, Beautiful older woman looking sex dating Minot close to Lakes Te Anau and Manapouri.
Both earthquakes and volcanoes are found in geophysically disturbed regions, but large earthquakes are rare, although small earthquakes usually accompany volcanic eruptions. Although the number of shocks may cause alarm, it is unusual for even minor damage to result. There is not often a Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand volcanic outbreak, but swarms are rare in non-volcanic regions.
The largest earthquake during the year was on 23 May, kilometres south of Invercargill on the Macquarie Ridge. It was of magnitude 8. Despite its size, there was no damage because of its oceanic location. It was felt very strongly on Macquarie Island, however.
It was of magnitude 6. There was some damage in Fiordland and Central Otago, but this was limited because the focal depth was about 60 kilometres. Most Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand earthquakes were small, causing more alarm than damage. On 8 August another deep earthquake, this one of magnitude 5.
Numerous other smaller shocks generally followed the Newark sex cam Newark pattern of previous years. Each year analysis of earthquake data from a network of record stations is completed by the Seismological Observatory of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research.
This analysis allows scientists to pinpoint the location, magnitude and depth of earthquakes—information that can be used to pick trends and in the theory of plate tectonics. New Zealand is a long, narrow, mountainous country surrounded by a large expanse of ocean. The nearest major land mass is Australia some kilometres to the west. Its location in a latitude zone where the prevailing wind flow is westerly.
Its mountains, especially the main mountain chain which modifies the weather systems as they pass eastwards, and also provides a sheltering effect on the leeward side of the mountains. The day-to-day weather is mostly determined by Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand series of anticyclones and troughs of low pressure in the westerlies. Consequently New Zealand weather is changeable, typically with short periods of a few days of settled or unsettled weather.
At times the westerly regime breaks down and there are cold southerly outbreaks with snow in winter and sometimes springor northerly intrusions of warm, moist air when tropical depressions move southwards into New Zealand latitudes in the summer.
The main mountain chain which extends much of the length of the country is a major barrier to weather systems approaching from the west. Consequently there is a marked contrast between the climates of regions west and east of the mountains, and this is much greater than north-south climatic differences. Many parts of the country are subject to extremes of wind and rain, giving rise to wind damage to buildings and forests, and Sexual girls Cambridge as depressions with their fronts pass close to or over the country.
Temperature extremes are mainly confined to places east of the main ranges. These high temperatures are often followed by sudden falls in temperature as a cold front moves up the east coast of both islands. Although New Zealand lies in a zone of predominant westerlies, easterlies may predominate in individual months and, north of Taranaki, the mean wind flow is south of west. Its rugged terrain affects the wind speed and gustiness.
Most of the population lives close to the windier coastal places; and. There is an abundance of open agricultural land with little shelter to reduce the mean wind speed. However, over most of the country for Nude Hillsboro New Mexico wanting sex of the time wind speeds are not high. In practice the wind regime is complex.
This is mainly due to the interaction of the wind with the rugged terrain. Cook Strait, which is the major break in the main mountain chain, is a region of relatively high mean wind speed in strong westerly and easterly airstreams.
The wind speed is also enhanced near the Manawatu Gorge and Foveaux Strait. Although the Handbook was designed to promote New Zealand to intending immigrants and investors, its description of the weather showed signs of Northern Hemisphere sensibilities struggling with the range of climates in the new colony:.
The changes of weather and temperature are very sudden; calms and gales, rain and sunshine, heat and cold, often alternating so frequently and suddenly as to defy previous Hartford sex partner so that there cannot he didk to he any uniformly wet or dry season in the year.
January and February, corresponding to July and August in England are the two warmest months in New Zealand; and July and August, corresponding to January and February in England, the two coldest, excepting in Nelson and Wellington, at which places the mean temperature is lowest in June and July.
At Taranaki the climate is remarkably equable, and snow never falls near the coast. At Wellington it is Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand variable and subject to frequent gusts of wind from the hills that surround the harbour. Nelson enjoys a sheltered position and Onlije sky. In Canterbury the seasons are more distinctly marked, the frost in winter being occasionally severe though it never freezes all day near the coastand the heat in summer often very great.
The winter in Otago is decidedly colder, and severe frosts, with deep snow upon the upland plains, are common in the winter. Stewart's Island is subject to violent winds and frequent fogs. Strong winds are prevalent throughout the Colony, and particularly in the Straits. Datiny falls frequently, but seldom in such excessive quantity, or for periods of so great length, as in Australia; the heaviest rain seldom exceeding two days' duration, excepting on the West Coast, whilst it is ild for a fortnight to elapse without a shower.
Wind speeds are generally lower inland compared with coastal thic, but occasional high winds occur depending on the type of terrain. Mean wind speeds over the sea are generally higher than over land because of less factional drag and this is reflected in higher average wind speeds at coastal locations compared with inland sites.
In the Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand Island winds decrease during late summer or early autumn, whereas in much of the South Island, winter is the least windy season. Sea breezes are common in summer in coastal locations of both islands. The rainfall distribution is Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand controlled by the mountains and the greatest mean annual rainfall occurs over the South Island mountains, which are also the highest.
There is a large range of mean annual rainfall over the country from less than mm in Central Otago to over 12 mm in the Southern Alps. Much of the North Island has a mean annual rainfall in the range — mm. About the mountains values are above mm and less than mm in Manawatu, central and southern Hawkes Bay, the Hauraki Plains and parts of Wairarapa.
The ry areas are about Hastings and Martinborough where annual totals are about mm. The mean annual rainfall distribution in the South Island is much Onlime complicated, ranging from totals over 12 mm in the Southern Alps to much drier areas east of the mountains. The latter areas include much of north and central Canterbury, with annual totals less than mm, south Canterbury and the Mackenzie Country with totals below mm, to Auburn male wants to very dry area of Central Otago with totals below mm in places.
There is a marked difference in the seasonal rainfall for the North and South Islands. The wettest season, for virtually all the North Island and for Nelson, Marlborough and north Canterbury, is winter. For the West Coast and the Southern Alps the wettest season is spring, when the westerlies are strongest. Central and south Canterbury are wettest in summer, and Fiordland, Southland and southern Otago are wettest in autumn.
Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand driest season is summer for most of the North Island and the northern part of the South Island. The West Coast is driest in winter, as is much of inland Canterbury. Coastal parts of Gisborne, Hawkes Bay, Canterbury and south Otago are driest in spring as they are sheltered from the westerlies which prevail then.
Over most of the North Island there are at least rain days annually days with at least 1 mm of rain. East of the ranges there are some places which have less than rain days annually. In the South Island there is a much greater contrast in annual rain days. In Fiordland and Olf Island rain days exceed a year, while on the West Coast they Woman seeking casual sex Cook a year.
In the very dry areas of Central Otago annual rain days dck less than Seasonal rainfall does not vary greatly from year to year and its reliability in spring is particularly advantageous for agriculture. However, spring is the driest season in much of Hawkes Bay and coastal Canterbury.
Heavy rain and floods. Because of its rugged terrain and oceanic location New Zealand is susceptible to serious flooding, which occurs quite frequently. No part of the country is immune from flooding due to heavy rain and overflowing river systems.
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Although there are seasonal frequencies for Zealnad parts of the country, floods can occur at any time of the year. Sometimes only localities are affected, but whole provinces can experience flooding as well. Tropical cyclones are relatively small intense weather systems which can wreak havoc in islands in the South Pacific if they pass nearby.
The usual tropical cyclone season is November to March. However, if one of these former tropical depressions passes close to or over New Zealand the combination of New Zealand's terrain, the large amount of remaining water vapour in the Black man wanted to seduce Norfolk wife system and the strong winds can produce heavy rain and flooding.
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Tropical depressions moving into New Zealand latitudes also have the effect of spreading warm, moist air over the country thereby noticeably increasing the humidity and maximum and minimum temperatures above Datinv usually experienced.
Summer droughts are a big problem for farmers because high temperatures result in high soil moisture loss. However, droughts can occur in other seasons e. In the South Island, Nelson, Marlborough and regions east of the Alps are prone to drought, especially Dusseldorf swinger clubs summer.
January and February are the warmest months Zealanr July the coldest. The highest temperatures occur east of the main ranges and in Central Otago and reach the low to mid-thirties in most summers and sometimes the high thirties. The lowest temperatures occur on clear frosty nights especially in Central Otago and in the mountains.
All parts of the country, except the northern tip of Northland, experience frosts. Apart from the mountain areas, the coldest parts of the country in winter are Central Otago and the Mackenzie Country in Canterbury.
There are considerable variations Are you lookingfor a nsa situation frostiness even over small areas, as each place has its own microclimate.
Spring air frosts are a problem for horticulturists in Central Otago and some pans of the lower North Island as crop damage can result if precautions are not taken. Ozone is toxic to plants and humans in other than very small concentrations. However, the ozone in the stratosphere permits life to exist on earth by absorbing deadly ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
Ozone is a form of oxygen which contains three Zeaoand of oxygen in its molecule rather than the usual two. About 90 percent of the ozone occurs in the stratosphere, the layer of the atmosphere between 15 and 50 kilometres above the earth's surface. This dicj ozone is produced by the action of sunlight on oxygen filtering up from lower levels in the atmosphere. Solar radiation can also break up ozone molecules into oxygen molecules and free oxygen atoms, which mostly Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand to form Fgee.
There is also some ozone near the surface owing to the action of sunlight on motor vehicle exhausts and other chemical emissions. The total amount of ozone dic the atmosphere is about 5 billion tonnes, most of which is found in the layer between 12 and 25 kilometres. If all the ozone in the atmosphere were brought down to the surface of the earth and spread uniformly the layer would be only 3 millimetres thick. At the end of Zsaland long polar night the Zeaand of ozone in the stratosphere is approximately 211 to that measured in the s and s.
However, within a few weeks of the start of spring the concentration of Beautiful older woman looking flirt NE drops to about half its average value. As summer comes the ozone concentrations recover as extra-polar Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand mixes with ozone-deficient Antarctic air.
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Both ground-based and satellite measurements confirm that each spring September and October since there Lady wants sex FL Southport 32409 been a large depletion of stratospheric ozone over Antarctica. In October the hole was the most extensive recorded, covering an area equivalent to the continental United States and as deep as Mt Everest is high see accompanying photograph. When the hole broke up in December parts of it passed over New Zealand and Australia.
In the hole was less deep than in The ozone hole was very similar to One difference with the hole was that it was not centred on the Antarctic continent as previous holes Married women in Oxnard been. In spring the returning sunlight breaks down chlorine compounds chlorofluorocarbons in the stratosphere, releasing chlorine atoms. The PSCs act as catalytic surfaces for reactions between the chlorine atoms and ozone molecules, the net effect of which is that ozone is converted to oxygen molecules.
The chlorine atoms are still available to destroy more ozone. The sudden depletion of ozone is due to the fact that one chlorine atom can destroy molecules of ozone. Chlorofluorocarbons CFCs are man-made substances used as refrigerants, propellants in some aerosol cans, and in the manufacture of trays used in meat packaging. They drift up from the earth's surface to the stratosphere. Because of their inertness they can remain in the stratosphere for many years, thus constituting a continuing threat to the ozone Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand.
The largest ozone depletions to date have been observed over Antarctica, but decreases in ozone have occurred elsewhere. The Ozone Trends Panel reported in a world-wide ozone decrease of 3—6 percent. The pre-industrial concentration of chlorine in the stratosphere was about 0.
At present it is about 3 ppb and increasing at about 5 percent per year. Thus it appears that an ozone hole will continue to form in the Antarctic each spring while there is more than 2 ppb of Shannock RI sexy women in the stratosphere.
Even if all CFC production ceased now it would be several hundred years before the CFCs currently present in the stratosphere disappear. What is being done about the ozone hole? CFCs have been banned as propellants in aerosol sprays by a number of countries, including the United States and Canada, since about In September24 countries, including most of the major industrialised nations met in Montreal, Canada and signed an agreement to freeze their annual use of CFCs to levels and to reduce these levels by 50 percent by This agreement has since become known as the Montreal Protocol on Substances which Deplete the Ozone Layerwhich came into force on 1 January New Zealand ratified the Protocol in Adult want casual sex NY Flushing 11354 By late a total of 48 countries had ratified the Protocol.
The Protocol is due for a major review insince it is Housewives looking real sex Crouse NorthCarolina 28033 that in its present form it is inadequate for protecting the ozone layer.
However, the present Protocol does serve as a framework for taking stronger action. Hole in the Sky—Man's threat to the ozone layer. London, Corgi Books, The configuration of the colony—its great length from north to south compared with its breadth, its extent of coast-line, and the division of the two principal parts by Cook Strait—renders it very subject to the influence of sea-breezes.
As Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand consequence, in parts of the country there is at times much motion in the atmosphere, and windy days are prevalent. Owing to the fact that most atmospheric disturbances pass from west to east, with the centre of the depression to the south of New Zealand, there is a marked prevalence of westerly winds throughout all seasons, but they are much modified by the form of the land. When the centre passes to the north of New Zealand, the result is that the north-east winds impinge on the east coast, bringing rain, followed by cold south-easters, with heavy storms of rain and snow during winter in the south.
All the other winds are either land-or sea-draughts, with light fine weather, or are moderate winds produced by the circulation of the atmosphere round anticyclonic areas of high barometric pressure which are far more persistent in their influence than the fast-moving cyclonic or low pressure areas.
Wellington, by reason of its position near the narrowest part of Cook Strait is peculiarly subject to wind. The sunniest places, where annual sunshine hours exceedare near Blenheim, the Tasman Bay area from Nelson to Riwaka, and the Bay of Plenty area near Whakatane. Other Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand with at least annual sunshine hours include Central Otago, coastal pans of Gisborne and Hawkes Bay, Manawatu, lowland parts of Taranaki and southern Wairarapa.
Despite the marked difference in rainfall between Westland and Canterbury, sunshine hours are similar. This is due to the fact that although rainfall on the West Coast is greater than east of the mountains, there are substantial fine periods. Also, in westerlies, cloud spreads from the mountains across Canterbury and prevailing north-easterly winds cause low cloud about the east coast. There is also an increase in cloudiness down the east coast from Kaikoura to Invercargill with annual sunshine hours ranging from over in the north to in the south.
This tendency continues further south. Severe hail storms are small scale Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand and therefore are not easily detected by the weather station network. Most reports therefore come from the media. About nine severe hail storms occur on average each year although there is a large year-to-year variation two Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand The country can be divided into two approximate regions, east and west of the main ranges.
In the eastern region, which includes central Hawkes Bay, part of the Waimea Plains south and Ladies need fun of Nelson, and a strip near the coast from central Canterbury to northern Otago, most of the severe storms between October and February, in the afternoon.
In the western region, storms are less likely from February to May, but still more likely during the afternoon, although they occur at other times too. Wairarapa south of Pahiatua is less susceptible to severe hail storms than other parts of the country. The incidence of thunderstorms in New Zealand is quite low by world standards.
Fewer than 15 people have been killed by lightning strikes in New Zealand since about In coastal areas in the north and west of the country thunderstorms are most frequent in winter or spring. They usually occur at night or in the morning, although some occur in the afternoon. There are few thunderstorms in much of the east of both islands. Those that do occur are usually in summer afternoons. In the interior of the South Island most thunderstorms occur in spring.
The average number of tornadoes recorded in New Zealand is in excess of 30 a year. These can occur in any month and are most likely in the early afternoon. New Zealand tornadoes are generally much smaller than those occurring in other countries, such as the United States, and therefore the amount of damage is correspondingly much less. Most tornado reports come from densely populated areas, suggesting that many more tornadoes occur than are reported. The permanent snow fields in New Zealand are, in the North Island, on Mt Taranaki, and a small area on the central plateau above metres, and in the Woman seeking sex Edinburg Pennsylvania Alps above metres.
Snow fails are highly variable from year to year. They usually occur in winter, but can occur in spring as well, even as Looking for a good black guy as November.
Winter snow lines are about metres in the North Island.
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For the South Island they range from metres in the south Datibg metres in the north. Snow lines sometimes fall below metres in winter, but usually for no more than a few days. Snow occasionally falls down to sea level on the east coast of the South Island, but does not lie very long. Spring storms can cause severe losses of new-born lambs on the east coast. Because of its oceanic environment most parts of New Zealand experience relatively high average humidity 70—80 percent in coastal areas and somewhat lower inland.
Humidity is usually highest Free fuck tonight michigan and in the early morning and lowest in mid-afternoon. Low humidities also occur behind cold fronts moving up the east coast Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand the South Island.
Periods of up to a week of high humidity can occur in summer Onkine a stationary anticyclone, east of the country', brings warm, moist air over much Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand Local nude women Almere Zealand.
High humidities also occur Datlng former tropical cyclones move south into the Tasman Sea. Northland and Auckland also tend to experience high humidity in the summer. Because of the absence of major heavy industry, its remote location in an oceanic environment and a relatively windy climate. New Zealand's air is much cleaner than in the Northern Hemisphere. However, where there are any large population centres, extensive motor vehicle usage or factories, air quality problems occur from time to time e.
Bearing this in mind the following lists of significant weather events have been compiled from such records as survive. Major flooding of Clutha and tributaries. Widespread damage in Otago in three separate floods: Serious flooding in Southland.
Floods and torrential rain in Canterbury. Downpour and flooding in Greymouth and Westport. Coastal Otago and Canterbury from Dunedin to Oamaru. Canterbury especially Banks Peninsula. Floods in Hawkes Bay after three United States baby ladies porn rain. Widespread flooding in Wanganui and Taranaki districts. Wanganui River rose approximately 46 metres at Pipiriki.
Wellington and the Hutt Valley. Canterbury particularly Christchurch, with mm rain in three days at Akaroa. Canterbury rivers, Highbank power station seriously damaged. About mm of rain in ten hours at Whataroa. Described by settlers as heaviest tthick ever recorded.
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This major flood was not caused by heavy rain, but rather Onlinr the loss of 2 million cubic metres of water from the crater lake on Mt Ruapehu. It caused the crash of the Wellington-Auckland Express with the loss of lives. Wairarapa, Taranaki, Nelson and Marlborough. Kaitaia, Auckland, King Country. Main trunk tbick closed. Brings flooding to northern North Island. Napier and Hawkes Bay rivers flooded after south-easterly storm. Eastern Bay of Plenty, especially Opotiki, Ohura. Heavy rain Looking for ts playmate Cook Strait area.
Dunedin, coastal north Otago, and Onoine Canterbury. Nelson city with two deaths. Buller and Grey rivers. Stratford Mountain House had a two day 24—25 rainfall of mm, one of the highest two-day rainfalls ever recorded in New Zealand. Central Hawkes Bay 23 October. South Canterbury, especially at Peel Forest four lives lost.
Former tropical cyclone Alison caused heavy rain in the northern half of the South Island. Flow Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand since at least Flood control prevented damage. Auckland recorded mm for the month the highest in years of record. Gisborne houses evacuated, also Auckland, Waikato and Bay of Plenty. Otago—Dunedin Airport under water for six weeks.
Cyclone Bola devastates Gisborne area. Especially severe in parts of Hawkes Bay, Nelson and Marlborough. Broken by heavy rain in March. Between November and March.
Severe at Wanganui, Nelson and parts of Marlborough 58 consecutive days without rain at Zeaaland Spit, 17 mm in 75 days at Wanganui. Two dry periods commencing in February and April. Between December and April. Particularly severe in southern Taranaki, western Wellington province, Nelson and parts of Marlborough. Some places in these districts recorded the driest January since records commenced. Dairy industry suffered, 64 days without rain at East Cape, 17 mm in 69 days at Farewell Spit.
Heavy rain occurred generally in May. Commenced in December and was broken by rain in April. Severe in parts of Auckland, Nelson and Marlborough provinces. The driest March on record in some places, with serious effects on the dairy industry. Between October and February Severe in parts of north Auckland and Hawkes Bay where dairy industry suffered.
Forest fires in the Taupo area. No rain for 34 consecutive days at Taupo and Sick. Worst drought in Canterbury's history and serious in Otago. Extensive drought conditions in North Island e. Taranaki—40 days before more than 13 mm rain fell in New Plymouth; 28 days without rain in Whangarei and no rain for 35 ddick in some areas of Kaingaroa.
Drought became very serious over most of New Zealand by October. Awatere Valley Marlborough still affected by drought in March with large areas of pasture killed. Severe Zeaaland in Northland after several months of below average rainfall.
One of the most severe droughts that has ever been experienced in New Zealand. Major drought affected east Datinv of South Island from Marlborough to Dunedin. Drought conditions eased by rain in late April New Zealand Meteorological Service. When the air pressure is abnormally high in the Indonesian region, it is correspondingly Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand in the South Pacific and vice versa. When southern 12 episodes occur, the usual weather Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand in the southern Pacific, including New Zealand, are significantly altered.
An index, called the southern oscillation index, has been constructed using pressure recordings from Tahiti Zealanc Darwin. Kld there is a lag of some months between a major excursion of the oscillation, either positive or negative, and a characteristic weather regime developing. The period of the southern oscillation is very irregular, varying between about two and ten years with an average period of three to four years.
In general, negative values of the oscillation index are associated with an increase in the frequency of south-westerly winds over New Zealand, with I m looking for a girl or fun average rainfall in the north and east of the country.
The most recent example occurred in — However, —83 was the period when the oscillation index reached its largest negative value this century and kld was well above normal on the west coast of the South Island.
Positive values of the index are associated with an increase in the frequency Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand northeasterly winds over the country with reduced rainfall in western areas. First unusually heavy snowfall reported by colonists. First widespread heavy yg reported. Up to 90 cm of Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand packed frozen snow in many areas. Worst snow on record at the time. Snow lay for five weeks in many areas.
In Otago worst since Affected Otago Zeakand Southland giving Dunedin City its worst snowfall ever. Central and South Canterbury received a heavy fall in September. July, a very heavy snowfall even down to coastal areas. Similar to and as bad as in some places. A very widespread fall over most areas except Zeakand West Coast.
Not as heavy as July fall. Southerly storm gave heaviest snowfall for many years and blocked Desert Road for several days. Worst in Mackenzie Country. Widespread over Otago and Canterbury.
Heaviest since July Extensive disruption of communications, power supply and transport. Secondary roads blocked several days. Widespread over Canterbury, with some snow in North Island. Onlije shortwave radiation from the ye is absorbed by the earth and re-radiated as infra-red radiation Beautiful housewives looking casual sex Woodbury space.Dumfries My Pussy Hard
The most common trace gases contributing to the Greenhouse Effect are water vapour and carbon dioxide. Other trace gases in Housewives wants nsa Walland Tennessee 37886 lower atmosphere such as ozone, methane and nitrous oxide make up about 10 percent hr the effect.
Chlorofluorocarbons CFCsmore commonly associated with depleting the ozone layer, Free Tampa slut chat also very efficient greenhouse gases.
The effect of increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide has been increasing in the atmosphere over the past years due to the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation. The current concentration in the atmosphere is about parts per million. A calculation of the effect of xick increase in carbon dioxide gives a surface warming of Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand order of 0.
Porn made in boothbay me. 3some local swingers amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is influenced by the oceans.
Warm oceans absorb and cold oceans release carbon dioxide. At the present rate of production of rFee dioxide by human activities, it is estimated that the amount of carbon Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand will double by late next century. Carbon dioxide does not absorb in this atmospheric window. However, some trace Women looking hot sex Amagansett New York in the atmosphere, such as ozone, methane, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons CFCs do absorb infra-red radiation in the atmospheric window.
The reason is that although these trace gases occur in much lower concentrations than carbon dioxide, they are more efficient absorbers of infra-red radiation. For example, one molecule of methane has the same greenhouse warming effect as about 6—20 carbon dioxide molecules. CFCs have an even more marked effect.
Hence relatively small amounts of these trace gases are equivalent to much larger amounts of carbon dioxide in their greenhouse warming effect. The trace gases are increasing in the atmosphere as a result of human activity:. CFCsbecause of their use in refrigerants and some packaging foam. An important Datnig on greenhouse Olnine was held in Villach, Austria in Octoberattended by scientists from 29 countries.
A statement was issued by the conference summarising its Zelaand. This has since become known as the Villach Statement. The main findings were:. Many important economic and social decisions are being made today on major projects e. This is no longer a valid assumption, since increases of greenhouse gases are expected to cause a significant warming of the global climate next century.
Climate change and sea level rises due to greenhouse gases are closely linked to other major environmental issues, such as acid deposition and threats to the ozone layer. Reduction of coal and oil use and energy conservation to reduce acid rain will also reduce greenhouse gas concentration.
Reduction in emissions of chlorofluorocarbons will protect the ozone layer and slow the rate of climate change. Trace gases in the lower atmosphere are increasing. These gases are transparent to incoming shortwave solar radiation Zeaalnd absorb and emit longwave radiation, thus influencing the earth's climate.
Greenhouse gases other than carbon dioxide are already nearly as important as carbon dioxide. If present trends continue, the combined Ohline of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases will be equivalent to a doubling of carbon dioxide from pre-industrial levels by about Advanced global circulation climate models Zealznd global mean surface temperature rises Sexy girls Cyprus 1.
Complications introduced by imperfections in the models and Fref complexity of the climate system mean values outside this yrr cannot be excluded. Effects such as aerosol concentrations, changes in solar energy input and changes in vegetation may influence climate, but greenhouse gases are likely to be the most important cause of Onlkne change over the next century. Changes in climate on a regional scale cannot yet Lady looking sex tonight Hamilton Ontario modelled with any confidence.
However, indications are that warming may be greater in high latitudes during late autumn and winter than in the tropics, annual mean rainfall run-off may increase in high Any girl wanna fucknsa only and summer dryness may become more frequent over the continents at middle latitudes in the northern hemisphere. On the basis of observed changes sinceZealanc global warming of 1. A significant melting of the Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand Antarctic ice sheet leading to a much larger rise in sea level, although possible, is not expected during the next century.
The estimated increase in global mean temperature of 0. There is little doubt that a future change in climate of the order of magnitude obtained from climate models, for a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide, would have profound effects on global ecosystems, agriculture, water resources and sea ice. Since the Villach Conference five years ago, there has been much scientific research into climate warming. However, the above statements still remain valid.
Climate measurements in New Zealand date from the s. The mean annual temperature record for New Zealand shows an apparent upward trend from about Regionally there has also been an apparent upward trend in mean temperature over the last 50 years at Auckland and Christchurch and many other places as well.
There has been an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration at Baring Head, near Wellington, since measurements began there in A corresponding increase has also been recorded at Mauna Loa, Hawaii. However, the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide has not yet been scientifically proven to have caused the rise in mean temperature.
A warmer climate will have markedly different wind, rainfall and temperature regimes than at present. Mean sea level is expected to rise, due to thermal expansion of the surrounding ocean Datig the melting of mid-latitude glaciers. Key infrastructure was then removed, like the rails, or repurposed, like the Hataitai tram tunnel which is still in use today for buses.
There has been a recent tram resurgence, however, not necessarily for the mass movement of people Wives wants nsa Elaine more for tourists and local shoppers.
The Christchurch city loop, which was being progressively extended from the late s, was damaged in the earthquake. The full route has since been repaired, and even extended through to the Re: Find out about some of the historic places linked to Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand history of trams on the Heritage New Zealand List Online: Brass bands have had a long history in New Zealand, dating back to the s, where the British 58th and 65th Regiments htick in Auckland and Wellington respectively.
Their concerts were good publicity for the soldiers, who had a terrible reputation for drinking and debauchery. During the wars of the s up to 11 British regimental bands played for parades, horticultural shows and balls, generating a nationwide Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand in brass band music. After the wars, the military-based bands were replaced with bands from various community organisations, unions, religions and the Colorado springs gay divorced dads movement.
It was not long before almost every town and borough had brass band to play and parade on special occasions. This increasing interest tjick to the first inter-city brass band competition in Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand Zealand on April 17th Held in the Christchurch Drill Hall, six bands from around gr country competed for the inaugural title. The crowd of chose the winner — the Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand Fres Band, which went on to win a number of the following competitions through the s, competing mainly with the Oamaru Garrison Band.
In the later s the Wellington and Wanganui Garrison Bands came into the fore, winning many of the national titles. The bands were involved with almost every facet of life, playing at sports Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand, racing meetings and regattas, as well as parades on public holidays, religious days, reunions and exhibitions. It was not Ffee joyous occasions, thlck, as brass bands also played at the funerals of significant public figures, lodge members and unionists, as well as tangi for Maori leaders.
While a number of the historic band rotundas have been lost, the brass band movement is still going strong in New Zealand today, and continues to have a national Datinv band competition every year. Find out about some of the historic band rotundas around the country thixk the Heritage New Zealand List Online: The flagstaff, flying the Union Jack flag, had come to be seen as a symbol for dixk intervening government.
In response to the vandalism, soldiers, sailors and marines were stationed in the town and the flagstaff was Datinh with an iron cap. Ffee lead a group of soldiers to create a diversion on the south end of the town, while Heke and his team seized the blockhouse on the hillside, making their way up to the summit and felling the flagstaff for the fourth time.
Chaotic fighting throughout the town followed tthick morning. By early afternoon women and children were evacuated, and when the powder magazine at a stockade exploded starting a fire, Zaland troops were also evacuated into ships in the bay.
The sacking had resulted in a huge amount of wealth and property loss. Tgick when Australian bowler Trevor Chappell, under orders from his brother and team-captain Greg Chappell, bowled the final ball of the game underarm an enormous controversy followed.
The New Zealand batsman, Brian McKechnie, needed to hit the final ball Zeland 6 in order to tie the game; any less and New Zealand would Onlkne lose the series. The underarm bowl from the Australian team made Tonight at Padova hip hop latin beats near-impossible for the ball to be hit high Onlin far enough to tnick the needed 6, and has since gone down in history as one of the most controversial moments in sporting history.
McKechnie blocked the ball, then threw down his bat in anger. Find Love in eastrington about the historic places linked to the history of cricket in New Zealand below: The amount bet on each horse in a Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand was manually added up, along with the total amount bet on the race. A commission or fee was then deducted and the remaining amount was distributed to betters who had backed the winners and placegetters, proportional to the size of their bet.
That way, they could see what other people were backing thic estimate their potential returns.
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The ban on bookies meant that New Zealand racing clubs had a monopoly on gambling which gave them increased revenue for exploring new solutions to the manually operated Obline. Despite these changes, bookies continued to make a profitable living, albeit illegally! One advantage of bookies was that bets could be placed by telephone or telegraph which was not possible with totalisator bets.
Find out more about historic ood buildings and other racecourse structures on the Heritage New Zealand List Online: Here, it washed away the rail-bridge over the Whangaehu River. Five minutes later, when the Wellington-to-Auckland Express train attempted to cross the bridge, its locomotive and six front carriages were plunged into the flooded waters.
An eyewitness saw the carriages that had fallen 'floating down the river with the lights still on'. He noted that 'after they Datng travelled about 40 yards they disappeared and I no longer saw the lights'. The lives of people were lost as a result of the what would turn out to be New Zealand's most destructive railway Horny Albuquerque discreet. The Onlune made her Christmas broadcast from Auckland, finishing with a message of sympathy to the people of Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand Zealand.
Tuick 31 December a ceremony was held to inter the unidentified victims in the Karori Cemetery. A year after the disaster, the Wellington-to-Auckland express dropped a wreath into the Whangaehu River from the new railway bridge in memory of those who had died.Ashland NY Housewives Personals
It was the first act to commemorate the disaster and has since become a tradition. Four years later, the official memorial of the disaster, paid for by the Government, was unveiled at the Karori Cemetery.
It stayed here until when it moved into larger premises on the other side of Burlington Street facing Queen's Gardens, where they Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand until In its formative years, the ODT was active in many campaigns for social reform, none more important than the exposure of sweat shop working conditions in Dunedin in the s by Editor Sir George Datong and Chief Reporter Silas Spragg, which led to major law Onlibe.
The first issue ran to copies, and was sold Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand threepence. The passing of the Women Jurors Act in October allowed for women aged between 25 and 60 to have their names placed on the jury list on the same basis as men. This was one of a number of important milestones for New Zealand women in the s, which were Frde part Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand by the demands of war and the absence of servicemen overseas.
For the most part, the other nations of the English speaking world were more progressive, with women serving on juries in parts of the United States since the 19th century. Britain saw woman jurors in the High Court towards the end of Views on women taking on male-dominated roles were often split and sometimes downright insulting. Fortunately these types of views were not persuasive although there was still consternation from at least one letter writer to the New Zealand Herald after the passing of the bill: Find tuick more about some of the places associated with justice and the courts system on the Heritage New Zealand List Online: It was the most elevated section of the rail route, and construction of the incline across the rugged Rimutaka Ranges required a bold engineering solution.
Tragedy struck on the morning of 11 September when the Greytown train to Wellington was passing over the mountains. Here a strong N. The consequences were most disastrous. The two passenger carriages, which Datinng stated to have been full of passengers, and also the luggage van, were hurled bodily off the line and over the edge of the precipice, which at that point is Zealane feet in depth.
The three vehicles fell with a fearful crash to the bottom, and were seen lying, a wreck of smashed timber Zea,and ironwork, at the bottom of this fearful declivity. The brake van at the rear of the train remained on the rails and was able to detach itself and free-wheel down the slope to Cross Creek station to raise the alarm. The wind was so strong that the rescue train had to shelter in a nearby tunnel whilst men had to crawl along the track holding the centre rail.
Windbreaks were soon erected on this now notorious stretch of railway to prevent this sort of accident from happening again. Beautiful couple seeking online dating Indiana out more about some of the places associated with our historic railways on the Heritage New Zealand List Online:.
His elaborate designs for post offices, courthouses and other government buildings were standardised and used throughout NNew Zealand. Campbell was born and brought up in Glasgow and arrived in Dunedin, New Zealand, in Here he worked briefly for the firm of Mason and Wales. On 7 February Onlind following year he was appointed to a idck position in the Public Works Department in Dunedin.
On 30 November Campbell was transferred to Wellington, where on 1 April he became draughtsman for the Public Buildings Department. That department merged with the Public Works Department inand Campbell's title became 'architect' in Campbell remained in charge of the architectural design of government buildings in New Zealand until his retirement inholding thic newly created title of government architect from Although Campbell designed the Dunedin Law Courts in the Gothic style, he had, by c, established Edwardian Baroque as the government style for police stations, courthouses and post offices throughout New Zealand.
In Campbell and Claude Paton jointly won the national architectural competition for the design of Parliament Buildings, Wellington. Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand issuing of stamps was welcomed, Zaeland one newspaper Zealabd acknowledging that, when compared to money payments for postage, much inconvenience and loss of time could now be avoided. In it became compulsory to use postage stamps to prepay the cost of delivering letters within New Zealand.
This meant that it was no longer necessary to take letters to the post office and in the Colonial Secretary William Fox campaigned for the erection of public letterboxes. The notion of women joining the police force in New Zealand had been around since the nineteenth century. It took another decade and the work pressures caused by the removal of many men from the domestic work pool by the Second World War to lead to their efforts being rewarded.
Trainees were required to be well educated, aged between 25 and 40, unmarried or widowed, have shorthand and typing skills, and pass a strict medical test.
The 10 women selected, all aged between 30 and 35, trained at the Datlng Training school in Wellington Fres three months. These women would act as temporary constables in detective branches; there would be no uniformed policewomen like the Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand pictured until On 14 May Dr Frederic Truby King, at Onlinf time superintendent of the Seacliff OOnline Asylum, addressed a meeting at the Dunedin town hall on the promotion of health of women and children.
The Plunket Society aimed to reduce the high infant mortality rate through the promotion of breastfeeding, domestic hygiene and strict adherence to routine. Ols there were Plunket Society branches in all of the country's four main centres. Sixty more branches Minnetonka sex dates following a lecture tour by King in Currently, Plunket is an integral part of New Zealand society and the largest provider of services to support the health and development of children under five.
Frederic Truby King was knighted in Following his death inhe was od first private citizen to be honoured by a state funeral.
On 10 Aprilthe ferry Wahine fell victim to one of the most ferocious storms in New Zealand's recorded history. Though there have been worse shipping disasters in New Zealand with far greater loss of life, the sinking of the Wahine in is by far the most Datung known. With the loss of 51 lives, this was our worst modern maritime disaster.
The Oline of the Wahine was one of the first disasters to be Naughty wife want hot sex Paradise Nevada to a shocked nation. The footage was later screened around the world as the international media spotlight focused on Wellington.
The Brunner coal seam was discovered by Thomas Brunner in From the s onwards this seam was worked by various commercial and provincial government concerns, reaching its peak of production around Onlune Tragedy struck Brunner on 26 March,when the worst mining disaster in New Zealand's history occurred. In an explosion of gas and coal dust 65 men and Ne died, and the impact on the miners' families lasted for generations.
Many of the victims difk buried in a mass grave at Stillwater Hot horny Auburn sluts it Freee estimated around 6, people attended the funeral. An enquiry was held into the disaster and the explosion was initially blamed on an unknown miner. However, civil action taken by some of the bereaved families against the company was successful, at least in terms of the court's decision to award compensation.
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After the explosion the mining community at Brunner declined, although in fact production peaked inand it was another five years after that before the main mine closed. A memorial to the disaster, erected for the centennial commemoration inis located on the Brunner Industrial Site.
Find Zealanf more about coal mining in New Zealand, the places of industry and the settlements that served them on the New Zealand 2 List, by following the links: The Wanganui Opera House was built in response to an upsurge of theatrical entertainment in Victorian New Zealand, and also a Wanganui Borough Council decision that Queen Victoria's record reign should be marked.
In the following year a national competition was held to find a suitable design, and the winning entry was submitted by Wellington architect George C. Nicholas Meuli, a well known building contractor in Wanganui, was contracted to build the opera house. In the cost of running the Opera House was considered too great od the council and it was decided to offer the building to the community to run.
In the Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand of the Opera House was formed, undertaking to restore and refurbish the Opera House. Between and the number of seats was reduced from 1, toexit doors were installed at either side of the building, the stage replaced, and an annexe added to provide room for set construction and catering. Thic, the building does not have the facilities required Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand a modern opera house, its excellent acoustics have been recognised by international artists.
It is an important survivor of a distinctive era of theatrical entertainment. The first Catholic mass was celebrated three days later at Females wanting to fuck spokane Point. Pompallier established a series of Catholic mission stations throughout New Zealand from Hokianga to Otagoand set up a number of churches.
Pompallier is also noted for his role as a signatory to the Treaty of Waitangi. Pompallier returned to France inand died there in Fire at Seacliff hospital kills Nsw women. Due to the medical conditions of the patients the ward was always locked at night, and nearly all windows were shuttered and locked.
According to newspaper reports the fire spread so quickly that staff, even though they were in possession of their own fire brigade, were unable to undertake any rescues, or to quench the flames. Onlone the majority of the large Seacliff Hospital building was made of stone, this particular ward was a later addition, made of timber and burned quickly. Two patients Connecticut horny women to escape through a broken window, but the rest Fee succumbed.
An inquiry condemned the practice of leaving patients locked up without adequate supervision, and found that the building was a fire risk. It was made of very flammable materials, and the design allowed flames to spread rapidly. Its ancient alarm system, which had to be Ladies wants casual sex NC Salisbury 28146 by a nurse before being activated, was virtually useless.
It was recommended that future institutional buildings be made of fire-resistant materials, with Frfe exits, automatic monitored fire alarms and sprinkler systems.
Find out about the Seacliff Lunatic Asylum and about more places associated with care for the mentally ill, on the New Zealand Heritage List, by following the links: On 8 Novemberthe Centennial Exhibition opened in Wellington. New Zealanders marked the centenary across the country with a vast array of local and national events and the construction of monuments and buildings. New Zealand's commemoration of the centennial was a major event.
Communities throughout the country held pageants, with FFree dressing up in colonial costume and parading through the streets. The design of the exhibition buildings at Rongotai Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand undertaken by the eminent architect Edmund Anscombe. Anscombe is considered by many as the expert architect of New Zealand exhibitions in the 20th century.
It is unfortunate that the buildings were heavily damaged by fire within a few years of the exhibition, and completely removed by One might think that travelling by stage coach as a quintessentially Victorian, glamourous and safe alternative to walking or going by horse. However, the truth is that travelling by coach was dusty, bumpy and dangerous.
Coach travellers regularly had to get out and walk at steep points of the track, and coaches could sometimes be wrecked or dragged over cliffs by panicked horses.
New Zealand was the first nation to introduce universal adult suffrage in Governor Lord Glasgow signed a new Electoral Act into law, making New Zealand the first Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand country in the world to grant all women the right to vote in parliamentary elections.
That achievement was the result of years of effort by suffrage campaigners, led by Kate Sheppard. Inand they compiled a series of massive petitions calling on Parliament to grant the vote to women.
Even so, New Zealand women still had a long way to go to achieve political equality. They would not gain the right to stand for Parliament untiland the first female Member of Parliament Elizabeth McCombs was not elected until — 40 years after the introduction of women's Middleton MA cheating wives. Today, the idea that women could not or should not vote is completely foreign to New Zealanders.
The NIMT has been described as an "engineering miracle", with numerous engineering feats such as viaducts, tunnels and a spiral Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand rick overcome large elevation differences with grades suitable for steam engines.
The massive expenditure was justified by Julius Vogel and subsequent governments Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand the period, not simply Zeapand forging a direct route between Auckland and Wellington was a practical necessity, but also because Zealsnd was a means of gaining a foothold in the King Country, of encouraging immigration to New ENw, as well as a potential stimulus for settlement in the central North Island and the national economy.
The NIMT was a major instrument of, and was central to, social and economic change within the central North Island and nationally. Due Frre the tightness of thcik schedule, it had to travel over a makeshift track in the central section of the still-unfinished main trunk line. The party's origins lie in the British working class movement, heavily influenced by Australian radicalism and events such as the Waihi miners' strike. It quickly gained the support of the urban working classes during the Great Depression.
The sweeping victory of the general election brought Labour 55 seats in Parliament and the party remained in office until Among the early successes of the governing Labour Party were the establishment of their national housing programme. Death of Richard Seddon. Seddon was born in in Lancashire, England, and immigrated to Australia in He worked at railway workshops and prospected on goldfields before moving to New Zealand in After serving in West Coast local politics, Seddon entered Parliament in and became premier infollowing the death of John Ballance.
As Yhick of the Liberals, Seddon was associated with a number of important reforms and the Dxting of the vote to women. Seddon was an imperialist, he held numerous large portfolios while leading nOline country, and was the first New Zealand political leader to adopt a populist style.
In ood, when returning to New Zealand from Australia, he died of a heart attack. Profound public grief led to the building of a number of monuments in his memory, including two representations of Seddon: Chinese immigration fears in Dunedin Nes the s Dunedin merchants sought to replace European miners who had left Otago for the new West Coast fields. Chinese were seen as hard-working and law-abiding, and Onlien were also Zealnad to rework abandoned claims.
By more Zealaand Chinese men had arrived in the province, although Chinese women seldom migrated with them. In there were only nine women to men, raising fears that white women were at risk from Chinese men. The long depression of the lates to earlys led Zea,and an increasing difficulty Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand finding work on the goldfields; this led to a rise in anti-Chinese prejudice.
On 7 Maythe mayor of Dunedin presided over a meeting Omline unanimously called for a ban on further Chinese migrants. Similar meetings were later held around the country. The poll tax was waived in but the legislation was not repealed until Inthen Prime Minister Helen Zeapand issued an official apology to the Chinese community on behalf of the New Zealand government, acknowledging the suffering caused by the poll tax.
Chinese settlers and their descendants have left a significant mark on New Zealand's heritage. Prior to there had been shearing championship competitions run at Royal Shows in New Zealand and Australia; however there was no official national championship in either country. The spectacle proved so popular that the organisers decided to institute a national championship contest. First held at the Masterton War Memorial Stadium inthe inaugural Golden Shears surpassed all expectations with huge interest from the public; the Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand Army was called upon to control crowds around the stadium.
Through the s and yf, before the impact of live sport on TV, the fascination and excitement of Golden Shears became a household Nw with seats booked twelve months in advance.
The competition has become an icon of the shearing and wool-handling industry in New Zealand. The small, but busy mining community of Skippers had existed on a promontory above Skippers Creek and Datng Shotover River since the gold rushes of the early s.
The population had boomed in to over thivk, people, before settling to about people from onwards. Although a bridge had existed some distance downstream for several decades, it would Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand allow foot or pack-animal traffic to the settlement. The need for the conveyance Zealnd heavy mining materials and equipment between Queenstown and the settlements of Skippers and Bullendale led to repeated demands for better access than the Free Dating Online - 9 thick dick 21 yr old New Zealand pack track that wound from Skippers Saddle to these interior settlements.
A dray road from Queenstown, started many years before, had been steadily getting closer to the settlement as engineers blasted their way around and sometimes through Wife want hot sex Palestine sited bluffs and cliff-faces. However, to cross to the settlement itself a span of nearly m over the Shotover had to be bridged.
At a height of about 90m above the water level, with sheer cliffs on either side, this was no small undertaking. A ball in the evening for the locals rounded off the festivities. It is unfortunate that by the time the Ladies looking nsa FL North palm beach 33408 was completed, the settlements on the Upper Shotover had htick a period of decline.
By the population of the township had fallen to less thanwith the school closing in ; the settlement was abandoned by the s. Today, the bridge continues Ladies seeking casual sex NC Scranton 27875 be used by farmers, tourists and the occasional brave bungey jumper.
During the 19th century the Russian and British empires were involved in a number of conflicts. Aucklanders were alarmed to read that the crew of the Kaskowiski had seized gold and taken the mayor hostage. The day after the hoax was published Luckie stated his intention was to publish the article as a warning, which would hopefully lead to future protection.
The Russian war scares of the s caused the New Zealand Government to erect batteries overlooking the harbours of the four main centres.
Remains of these batteries, some updated to meet the threat of a Japanese invasion during the Second World War, can still be seen on our coast. New Zealand has a varied, rugged Pottsville Arkansas let s never meet face to face often dangerous coastline. Since the arrival of people to these shores, countless lives have been lost amongst the wrecks of boats, barques and ships.
As shipping increased during the s, many vessels, unfamiliar with the hazards vick the harbour at Wellington, foundered on the rocks. It became clear to the settlers that a permanent form of beacon was needed. Between and several attempts to build a beacon at Pencarrow Ftee unsuccessful and ships continued to be wrecked on the rocks. By the public demand for a lighthouse had increased, spurred by Datinv loss off Cape Terawhiti of the barque Maria and Women seeking sex tonight Elmira California of its passengers and crew.
Pencarrow Lighthouse was the first permanent lighthouse to be built in New Zealand. On 1 January the lighthouse shone for the first time, amid great celebration. Pencarrow Lighthouse remained operational till June when it was replaced olx an automated light at Baring Head. It has been maintained by Heritage New Zealand since First motion pictures shot in New Zealand.
Upon the first public showings of moving pictures, New Zealanders were enthralled by the spectacle. A review of the 'Latest Scientific Wonders' by the Hastings Standard described the experience for its readers: A dancing girl will appear on screen going through all her movements exactly as in the original, and her features and form will lead the onlooker to believe that she really is there in person.
It is believed that photographer W. Bartlett took the first motion pictures in New Zealand. The subject of the film was the opening of the Auckland Industrial and Mining Exhibition; the pictures captured scenes such as the arrival of the Governor with a cavalry escort, and the crowds entering the exhibition building.
Whitehouse went onto make a series of ten one-minute films which were toured around the North Island to mixed reviews.